Need an research paper on kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning. Needs to be 5 pages. Please no plagiarism.
Need an research paper on kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning. Needs to be 5 pages. Please no plagiarism. While Kohlberg began his theories by interviewing children and adolescents on moral issues, the result of the information acquired became part of his doctoral dissertation in 1958 (Crain). This paper will take character, Kristin, through the various stages of situations in which she incorporates the different levels and stages of moral reasoning. The first level of pre-conventional morality includes children that are often about the age of preschool, elementary students and some junior high and high school students. For the most part, this primarily applies children who have not yet entered their teenage years. Within this level are the following three stages: Stage 1: Punishment-avoidance and obedience. Stage 2: Exchange of favors. and Stage 3: Good boy/good girl. During this time, Kristin may be just entering school age and while she still may know very little of right between wrong, she may be focused only on instant gratification and be also ego-centric in nature. People at this stage are not completely able to comprehend rules of society (Wong). Kristin is primarily engulfed in playing and participating in activities that she wants to at this age. What society would perceive as normal moral reasoning does not apply to her and she is living in the moment, crying if there is something that she wants and learning behaviors that she may acquire fear over instead. During Stage 1 includes punishment and obedience orientation and a child is able to determine that there can be physical consequences which help to teach them if they have done something good or bad. This then makes the child want to do something right in order to keep from receiving physical punishment. They then create an avoidance behavior in order to not do something that a parent or caretaker sees as wrong so that they will not again receive punishment. The child is focused on oneself in order to do the right thing to avoid punishment (Wong). Kristin may have pinched her sibling and when her mother realizes what she has done, she receives a spanking, scolding and a time out. Wrong behaviors are ones that are punishable. In order to avoid receiving a spanking, scolding or time out as punishment in the future, she learns to not do it again to keep from receiving the punishment. In the second stage of moral reasoning according to Kohlberg, a child may realize that other people also have needs. This is considered the individualism and exchange stage and concentrates on an exchange of favors. In order to help them determine what is right and wrong, the individual still does things that avoid consequences. However, they also make decisions to please their authority figures (McDevitt & Ormrod). The individual still has an egocentric point of view but are also starting to see things from a different perspective in order to satisfy another person (Wong). Kristin may have pinched her sibling and once received punishment. However, now, she tries to keep from tormenting her sibling in any way at all so to keep her mother happy with her behavior. Her mother gets upset when she torments her sibling and she is starting to realize that she does not want to make her mother upset.