I need some assistance with these assignment. popular resistance ( criminology degree level) : what is the difference between a social bandit and a celebrity criminal answer Thank you in advance for t
I need some assistance with these assignment. popular resistance ( criminology degree level) : what is the difference between a social bandit and a celebrity criminal answer Thank you in advance for the help! In this view of the world, hierarchies of power cause pressure on the lower rungs of the hierarchy, and this explodes out into resistance to this control from above. This resistance can be organized in various ways, including through trades unions, political activism, lobbying etc, and from time to time through more violent acts such as revolution or criminal campaigns. This paper summarizes the different types of popular resistance, following Weber, and then looks at two particular categories of popular resistance: the social bandit and the celebrity criminal. The two categories are often confused, and in order to make it clear what the difference is between the two, four key factors will be examined in turn: the social origins of protest, the motivation for criminal acts, the choice of victims and crimes, and finally the enduring legacies of each type of rebel. Two historical examples are cited: the Indian social bandit Phoolan Devi (1963-2001) and American celebrity criminals Bonnie Parker (1910-1934) and Clyde Barrow (1909-1934). Popular resistance: Weber’s four types of social action In 1914 Weber analysed popular resistance by dividing it into four categories: “1) rational orientation to a system of discrete individual ends… 2) rational orientation to an absolute value… 3) affectual orientation, especially emotional determined by the specific affects and states of feeling of the actor and 4) traditionally oriented through the habituation of long practice.” (Weber, 1996, p. 115) His insight into the way that actions have both meaning for individuals themselves, and a wider set of meanings in interaction with others illuminates the activities of criminals and these categories will be used in the following analysis. Social origins of protest. Eric Hobsbawn commented that “banditry is a rather primitive form of organized social protest, perhaps the most primitive we know” and that poor people “consequently protect the bandit, regard him as their champion, and turn them into a myth.” (Hobsbawm, 1971, p. 13) A social bandit arises out of a community which is a sub group of a larger community or state, and which has a number of beliefs and practices which are different from the larger unit. A key to his or her role is that he or she has the support of local people, and is in conflict with a higher authority. The deeply traditional and patriarchal society into which Phoolan Devi was born condones her arranged marriage to a man three times her age, and supports a caste system which condemns millions of people to poverty and squalor while higher caste landlords dominate lower caste peasants. Devi was captured and abused by local dacoits (an Indian term for roaming bandits). Her outrage and utter helplessness during this shocking treatment is the fundamental origin of for her rebellion. She grew up at the bottom of huge and impenetrable hierarchies of gender, social caste and provincial location, illiterate and poor, unable to defend herself from continuous oppression. The reality of India in the mid to late twentieth century is a fully modern industrial state with a huge deficit in terms of wealth distribution and rule of law. It seems then that Phoolan Devi’s early atrocities owe much to the third of Weber’s categories, namely affectual orientation. Clyde Barrow was a young man who began a life of crime by stealing cars and thieving in the early 1930s.